A Comprehensive Guide on Statistics Hypothesis Testing


Hypothesis testing is one of the widely used method in statistics. The statistics students should have a good command over it. In this blog we are going to figure it out that what is statistics hypothesis testing and where can we use it. Let’s start

What is Statistics?

Statistics is the science which is concerned with the study and methods of collection, interpretation and analyzing the empirical data. It is a highly interdisciplinary field of collection and interpretation of data. The field of statistics motivates you to work with data and to collect and analyze and interpret the data with the help of a variety of mathematical and computational tools. So that the data can get useful instead of just random data which is of no use.

What is Hypothesis?

A Hypothesis is when you propose an explanation on the basis of some evidence as a starting point for some investigation. Which means when you propose your work and explain some points on the basis of some evidence so that you can start further investigation on that topic. That is called a Hypothesis.

And the main purpose of statistics is to test a hypothesis. For example:- if you work on an experiment and you find that you have made a cure for headache and your drug is curing headache and is effective for that. But the thing is that if you are unable to repeat your experiment and you are unable to get the same result again and again then no one will take your result or your findings seriously. 

So, this is how hypotheses work and what hypotheses actually are.

What is a Hypothesis Statement?

Now if you are good in proposing a hypothesis and then you must know the value of writing a good statement. A good Hypothesis statement always helps the reader to understand your point of view with much clarity. 

If you are proposing a hypothesis then it is customary to write a good statement for the hypothesis. So that the reader can get a good idea of what is your point of view about the topic and what they should expect from your hypothesis. Because a reader should always know what he or she is going to read about and they should always get a brief of it from the Hypothesis Statement.  

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What is Hypothesis Testing?

hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is a way to test an experiment or a survey to check if you have got meaningful results. 

You can say that whenever you work on an experiment or a survey and if you need to know that you have got the results right or not or if you have got the meaningful results which you were looking for while you were working on the test. Then you should do that with the help of Hypothesis testing. 

So, basically we can say that with the help of hypothesis testing you can know whether the experiment you were working on was showing the right or desired results or not. 

You are basically testing whether the results are valid or not If your result may have happened to be desired results then great but if not then you can always perform the test again. 

But the hypothesis testing can be one of the most confusing aspects for the students because of many reasons. Because whenever you need to perform the hypothesis test then before that you need to know what your null hypothesis is. And which is the most trickiest part of it. That is what students think of it. But finding the null hypothesis is not much of a difficult step and you can find that very easily. 

Now you must be thinking that how are we going to find the null hypothesis and then how should we find the Hypothesis Testing. Then you do not need to worry at all. Because in the below steps you will know what actually null hypothesis is and how you would find it. 

What is the Null hypothesis?

If you go back in history then you will learn that the null hypothesis is always an accepted fact and everybody has used it in their papers or hypotheses. Even  huge renowned scientists. And it’s also been used in huge discoveries. Simple examples of null hypothesis that are generally accepted being true are:- 

  1. DNA is shaped like a double helix. This is one of the biggest null hypothesis examples. 
  2. There are 8 planets in our solar system. Which does not  include Pluto.
  3. There was a drug in the market names Vioxx. And It was said that taking this pill can increase the rate of heart problems. And that is why it was taken off the market. 
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So, these were some of the examples of Null Hypothesis and  Now know what null Hypothesis is and what is Hypothesis Testing. Then you should know how you will be able to state the Null Hypothesis. And that will help  you with Hypothesis testing too. 

How to state the Null Hypothesis?

You won’t always be required to do a real life experiment in order to actually state the null hypothesis or even to disprove a fact  like the “Pluto is a planet of our solar system”.

You will always be given problems or we can say the word problem from real life situations. And what you need to do is to figure out what your hypothesis is from that problem. And we know that it’s sounding a bit trickier and trust us it is a bit trickier. That is to know your hypothesis just  by reading the problem. It sounds trickier and it is one of the trickiest things to do. And to figure out what the accepted fact is just with the help of the word problems. By doing this you are looking for a fact that is nullified. And which is something you can reject too. 

Now as you know about what hypothesis testing is and what is Null hypothesis and what is hypothesis statement and all. Which means that you know every important thing you should know about Statistics Hypothesis Testing.

Now you should know what Bayesian hypothesis testing and to know about that you will have to read the blog further and you will surely be able to know about the Bayesian Hypothesis. 

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Bayesian Hypothesis Testing

Now you must be thinking that if the result from a test or survey can be repeated or not. Then you are thinking in the right direction and you have been reading the blog very carefully and you are working with the right thought process. Now the main question is why do we even care if a test can be repeated or not and why is there any need for the test to be repeated? And now you will get the answer to it by this example.

Let’s suppose that around 15-20 people of a village came down with any kind of disease or something. And now the doctors have diagnosed that this problem or disease is occurring by the radiation coming from the tower nearby the village.
And now there comes a team of researchers who are also blaming the tower for this to happen. However there came a second study which suggests that it doesn’t have anything to do with the mobile tower and they found that the problem was completely random and the towers have nothing to do with it.

Now this might sound impossible but this can actually happen this problem can happen just by any chance and can be random as possible. And there may be many chances or reasons that the first study was faulty. And this explains many things that sometimes things can happen randomly and in that case there is a need to repeat the result from but this can not happen in this case. So, this was Bayesian Hypothesis Testing and this explains that sometimes there is a need of things or results to get repeated. 


That is all about the Statistics Hypothesis Testing and some other topics related to the Statistics Hypothesis Testing like Hypothesis Statement. Hypothesis null and how do we state the Null Hypothesis and many other things related and in last the Bayesian Hypothesis Testing.  So, we are positive that by now you know mostly everything related to Hypothesis Testing.

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