Types of Quantitative Research | An Absolute Guide for Beginners

It does not matter which discipline a person belongs to. You have to come across the quantitative research data once or multiple times in life. Most people often come across one or multiple questionnaires or surveys. 

Let’s take an example of quantitative research. A survey is conducted to know how much time a shopkeeper takes to attend to the customer. And how many times he/she walks into the shop. 

Here, the survey is conducted using different questions. Such as how much time the shopkeeper takes to attend to the customer. And how many times the customer comes in the shop, etc.

The aim of these surveys is to draw the most relevant analytical conclusions. That helps in understanding the targeted audience. 

There are various types of quantitative research that a company uses. It uses to understand the product’s demand within the market. 

In this blog, we have given the necessary details about what quantitative research is. And its types. So, let’s move on to the details. 

What is quantitative research?

Quantitative research is one of the systematic techniques. It is used to collect the data using the sampling for quantitative methods. For example, online polls, questionnaires, and online surveys. 

The data is collected from both existing and potential users and represented numerically. 

Quantitative research also uses to measure the variables, analyze, and register the relationships between the variable studies with a numerical system’s help.  

In quantitative research, the information is collected via structured research. And the outcomes reflect or represent the population. 

Where is the quantitative research used?

Quantitative researchers use different tools. The tool uses to collect numeric data in terms of numbers and statistics. This data is represented in non-textual forms, such as charts, figures, and tables. 

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Moreover, the researchers can take the non-numerical data to examine the information.

Quantitative research is using in several areas, such as:

  • gender studies, 
  • marketing,
  • economics,
  • demography,
  • community health,
  • sociology,
  • psychology,
  • education, and so on.

What are the different types of quantitative research?

Survey research

The survey is one of the primary statistical methods. It is used for different types of quantitative research. The aim of this is to provide a comprehensive description of the characteristics of the specific population or group. 

Both large and small organizations also apply the offline and online survey research method. This helps to know their users and understand the product and merchandise views.

Key points regarding survey research:
In the survey research, the users raised various queries; therefore, the quantitative analysis was also done on the same basis. 
For conducting the survey research analysis, longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys are performed.
The longitudinal survey research applies to the population at different time durations. It utilizes in applied science and medicine.
The cross-sectional survey research applies to the specific or targeted population over a particular period of time. This use in researching the field of health care trade, retail stores, and much more.

Descriptive research

It describes the present status of all the selected or identified variables. The basic objective of descriptive research is to describe and evaluate the people’s present status, conditions, settings, or events.

Descriptive research is considered to be one of the important types of quantitative research.

The most common descriptive questions start with the “How much..,” “what is the…,” “what is a percentage of…,” and these kinds of questions. 

Let’s take an example of this survey. An Exit poll is a descriptive survey that includes questions like: “Which candidate will win this election?” 

Moreover, the demographic segmentation survey might be like this: “How many students between the 18-25 age do study at night?”

Key points regarding descriptive research:
The researchers in descriptive research do not start the research with the hypothesis. But, it is mostly developed once the information is collected.
The systematic collection of data requires a careful selection of measurements and units of each variable.

Experimental research

This is one of the types of quantitative research, as its name suggests that it is based on single or multiple theories. 

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It terms to be the true experiments that utilize the scientific technique to verify the cause-effect relations within the group of variables. 

Therefore, more than one theory uses to conduct the particular research. An example of experimental research is “the effect of the particular dose and treatment on breast cancer.”

Key points regarding experimental research:
A dependent variable in experimental research refers to the posttest variable. Or effect that measures identically for all the groups.
An independent variable in experimental research refers to the experimental variable. It applies to the particular experimental group.

Correlational research

It uses for establishing relationships among two close entities. And determining the relational impact on each other.  

For such cases, a researcher requires a minimum of two different groups. Additionally, this research approaches and recognizes the patterns and trends in the data without going far into the observation to analyze various trends and patterns.

An example of correlational research is the correlation between self-esteem and intelligence.

Key points regarding correlational research:
Sometimes, these types of quantitative research consider in the category of descriptive. As it is not a single variable that is manipulated within the studies.
The cause-effect relationship is not considered as the observational research type.
The different subjects classroom activity and achievement of students in the schools. These are some of the basic examples of correlational research.

Causal-comparative research

It is one of the scientific methods that apply to summarize the cause and effect equations among different variables. In causal relationships, a single variable is based on the complementary experimental variable.

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The experimenters do not manipulate the independent variable. But, the impact of independent variables over the dependent variables can be measured in causal-comparative research.

Let’s take some examples. The impact of divorce of the parents on their children. The impact of sports activity on the participants, and so on.

Key points regarding causal-comparative research
The analysis of casual-comparatives is not limited to the applied maths of two or more variables. But can extend to analyzing various groups and variables. 
These types of quantitative research work on the comparison process.
When the conclusions and analysis are made of various variables, the unknown and far-famed variables can affect the outcomes.

What is the methodology used for the quantitative research designs?

The structure of various types of quantitative research depends on the scientific method. 

This utilizes deductive reasoning, in which the researchers: find out the hypothesis. Gather the information. Uses it for further investigation to prove whether the hypothesis is true or not. Once the analysis is done, share your summary.  

Therefore, a basic procedure is followed for the quantitative research design:

  • Make the observations related to something, which is unexplained, explained, or new. Analyzing the present theory that is surrounded by issues or problems.
  • Hypothesizing the observations’ explanations.
  • Predict the result depends on the hypothesis studies by formulating the plan for your prediction test control.
  • Gather and process the information. If the prediction is right, move to the next step; otherwise, return to step 2. Get new hypotheses that depend on the new knowledge and situations.
  • Finally, verify the findings of the sample on different factors. Make the conclusions. Represent the outcomes in a well-structured manner to your audience.

Now, let’s check your knowledge regarding types of quantitative research!

Now, you have studied different types of quantitative research. Let’s check what you have learned. 

Take a quiz regarding the different quantitative research. Select the correct quantitative research type to the given statement. 

  1. Do people think working from home is a great option to enhance the employee’s productivity with longer commutes?
  • Descriptive Research
  • Experimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Causal-Comparative Research
Quantitative Research Type: Experimental
Demographic: The employee with longer commutes
Variable: Working in-office and from home
  1. How frequently do employees get the chance of traveling for a holiday?
  • Descriptive Research
  • Experimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Causal-Comparative Research
Quantitative Research Type: Descriptive
Demographic: Working person
Variable: Number of times employees get the chance to travel during the holiday
  1. What is the primary difference between senior citizens and Millennials regarding smartphone usage?
  • Descriptive Research
  • Experimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Causal-Comparative Research
Quantitative Research Type: Correlational
Demographic: Seniors and Millennials
Variable: Time consumed on smartphone usage
  1. How has the Covid-19 modified profession for white-collar employees?
  • Descriptive Research
  • Experimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Causal-Comparative Research
Quantitative Research Type: Experimental
Demographic: White-collar employees 
Variable: Work types and status
  1. Does the management method of the car shop owners foretell the work satisfaction of car sales associates?
  • Descriptive Research
  • Experimental Research
  • Correlational Research
  • Causal-Comparative Research
Quantitative Research Type: Correlational
Demographic: Car shop owners & sales associates
Variable: Management method & work satisfaction

Conclusion

There are various types of quantitative research. And researchers use different kinds of scientific tools to collect numeric data. 

It has been observed that the quantitative research survey questions must be so that the participants can have an easy and effective medium to responses. 

Hope you easily understand the details mentioned in the article. If you still have any queries, comment in the below section, and we will help you in the best possible way.

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