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# Consider the “RAH Waiting Times” Table. What type is the original data underlying the table and what type is shown in it?

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

South Australian elections were held a few months ago and one of the most talked about topics during the campaign was ramping in SA hospitals. For those that don’t know, “ramping” refers to patients having to wait in the ambulance car when there is no space available in the Emergency department of the hospital. The ambulance is parked on the access ramp to the hospital, hence “ramping”.

Consider the information provided in the Data Ramping RAH.pdf file. The information was downloaded from the SA Health website on 11 August 2022, at 20:30pm.

1. Consider the “RAH Waiting Times” Table. What type is the original data underlying the table and what type is shown in it? Make sure to explain how you identify the type. (5 points)

2. Consider the “RAH Waiting Times” Table, and in particular, the “Waiting for a Bed” category.

(a) Using Excel, build an appropriate histogram with this data. Include graph title and labels on the axis. Make sure the labels on your graph match those in the Table. (10 points)

(b) Using Excel, graph the cumulative distribution function for the data.  Again, make sure that the chart is correctly labelled and titled. (10 points)

If you cannot create an Excel chart that reflects all aspects of the histogram or cumulative distribution function correctly, either because of the constraints of Excel or because of the way the data is given, then add an explanation of what details of your chart need to be corrected or improved and why.

3. The dashboard has next to the “RAH Waiting Times” Table a chart that contains a visualization of the ”RAH Waiting Times” Table. That dashboard chart has one bar that depicts the “Waiting for a Bed” category.

The histogram you made in question 2 visualizes the same data as the part of the dash- board chart that shows that “Waiting for a Bed” category. Compare the use of a histogram with that of this particular form of a bar chart for this data by discussing their relative advantages and disadvantages. (10 points)

4. Consider now the “Avg Wait (min)” category of the “Status” Table (which is given in the table column with that name).

(a) Draw a graph that captures the values (earlier verion of the assignment said frequen- cies instead of values) of the “Avg Wait (min)” category and includes graph title and labels. Additionally, explain your choice of graph. (15 points)

(b) Compute (and make sure to show your calculations) the average, median, 1st quartile, 3rd quartile and variance of the “Avg Wait (min)” column. (10 points)

Australia is currently conducting the National Drug Strategy Household Survey.

Now consider the following information (loosely based on the 2016 survey):

Assume the survey asked the same number of women as men,  so the population consists of 50% women (F) and 50% men (M). One question asked was whether the person had ever used an illicit (illegal) drug in their lifetime, and responses could either be Yes (I) or No (N). The following table gives the results by gender:

Drug Usage by Gender (in %) in 2016

Male (M) Female (F)

Illicit use of any drug in lifetime (I) 46.6 39.9

No drug use (N) 53.4 60.1

5. The given information about the survey lists six numbers, each representing the value of a particular probability involving M, F, I, and N or a combination of these.  For each of these six values state which probability it refers to. (6 points)

6. Based on the given information, build the corresponding contingency table. For each of the four values of the contingency table show also how that value can be stated in probability notation, how you calculate the value, and explain shortly what each resulting value means. (16 points)

7. Based on the information from the previous question

(a) Calculate the following probabilities (make sure you show your way of calculating or where you take the value from) and explain what each resulting value means: P (I|F ), P (F ∪ I), P (N|M ), P (I ∩ N ) (12 points)

8. If you want to visualize the information given in the contingency table you derived in question 6, what chart would you chose? Explain the reason for your choice and mention what role the data type of the information in the table plays for your choice. (6 points)

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