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If the scores on a test have a mean of 26 and a standard deviation of 4, what is the z-score for a score of 18?

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

HW # 1_Sen

 

1. Which of the following are true statements?

  I. All bell-shaped distributions are symmetric.

 II. Bar charts are useful to describe quantitative data.

III. Cumulative frequency plots are useful to describe quantitative data.

a. I only

b. I and II only

c. I and III only 

d. II and III only

 

2. If the scores on a test have a mean of 26 and a standard deviation of 4, what is the z-score for a score of 18?

a. –2

b. 11

c. 2

d. –1.41

 

3. Large standard deviations will have what sort of distribution, relative to a distribution with a low standard deviation?

a. Raised

b. Flatter

c. The same

d. Zero

 

4. A researcher presented a recent study, which showed a statistical significance between increased consumption of sugar and increased tests scores in young children.  How can she explain to the government minister responsible for education that increasing children’s sugar consumption should not be encouraged?  

a. A significant result does not mean that the effect is important

b. A significant result means that the effect is strong.

c. A significant result means that the effect is not relevant.

d. A significant result means that the effect is weak.

 

5. When two variables are correlated with each other and with a third variable, which type of correlation is suggested?

a. Weak

b. Partial 

c. Perfect

d. Negative

 

6. When interpreting the employee IQ–productivity correlation coefficient, it is important to look at?

a. The significance of the correlation coefficient.

b. The magnitude of the correlation coefficient. 

c. The sign (+/–) of the correlation coefficient

d. All of the above

 

7. Which of the following statements would be considered a two-tailed hypothesis?

a. A female doctor will be more empathetic than her male counterpart.

b. As rates of immunization for measles increase, the incidence of measles will decrease.

c. It is clear that there is a relationship between a healthy balanced diet and feelings of well-being.

d. The use of antibiotics will not impact the progression of a viral infection.

 

8. Which of the following is not a hypothesis?

a. Compression garments are the best way to prevent the delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS).

b. Consumption of caffeine equal to 6 mg/kg of body mass increases reaction time when compared to a placebo.

c. Increased levels of physical activity in school children will lead to prolonged concentration during taught sessions.

d. Listening to music whilst actively cooling down after high-intensity exercise will facilitate the removal of blood lactate and accelerate the recovery process compared with no music.

 

9. The courses studied by a group of undergraduate students would be considered an example of which level of measurement?

a. Nominal

b. Ordinal

c. Interval 

d. Ratio

 

10. Why is the standard error important?

a. It gives you a measure of how well your sample parameter represents the population value.

b. It is unaffected by outliers. 

c. It is unaffected by the distribution of scores. 

d. It tells us the precise value of the variance within the population.

 

11. What is the preferred measure of central tendency using the following data: 23 Americans, 57 Mexicans, and 14 Canadians?

a. mean

b. weighted mean

c. median

d. mode

 

12. Which of the following sets of data illustrates skew?

a. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9

b. 450, 472, 523, 547, 601

c. 23, 37, 42, 51, 147

d. 12, 14, 15, 17, 19

 

13. A test score in the 47th percentile would be considered ______.

a. very high

b. very low

c. about average

d. cannot be determined

 

14. What impact do extreme scores have on the median?

a. a positive skew

b. a negative skew

c. minimal impact

d. nullifies the value

 

15. What is the mode of the following data: 52 bowls of spaghetti, 37 bowls of cereal, 14 sandwiches, and 17 personal pizzas?

a. 14

b. bowls of spaghetti

c. 52

d. sandwiches

 

16. What is the standard deviation for the following set of scores: 10, 15, 12, 18, 19, 16, 12?

a. 3.36

b. 11.29

c. 6.47

d. 17.78

 

17. As your sample size grows larger, the n - 1 adjustment for the standard deviation has a ______.

a. greater impact on your calculation

b. smaller impact on your calculation

c. the impact does not vary

d. this cannot be determined

 

 

18. If the correlation between variables is 0.70, what percentage of the variance is not shared variance?

a. 70%

b. 51%

c. 49%

d. 30%

 

19. Which of the following is the strongest correlation?

a. 0.21

b. 0.87

c. 0.44

d. -0.92

 

20. If data are not reliable or not valid, the results of any test or hypothesis ______.

a. must be true

b. are inconclusive

c. are valid in only certain situations

d. must be interpreted

 

21. Which of the following is an example of a directional hypothesis?

a. There is a positive relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.

b. There is a large relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.

c. There is a relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.

d. There is no relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain.

 

22. If you want to calculate a z score for a test where your raw score was 24, what other information must you know?

a. shape of the distribution

b. mean, median, and mode

c. mean and standard deviation

d. standard deviation only

 

23. Under the normal curve, if a z score of 1.65 included 45% of the area above the mean, what percentage would remain above 1.65 on the x-axis?

a. 5%

b. 25%

c. 85%

d. 95%

 

24. A test score in the 3rd percentile would be considered ______.

a. very high

b. very low

c. about average

d. cannot be determined

 

25. Compared with a 95% confidence interval, a 99% confidence interval would result in ______.

a. a wider range of values in the confidence interval

b. a smaller range of values in the confidence interval

c. the same range of values in the confidence interval

d. a range that cannot be determined in the confidence interval

 

26. p < .05 means that there is less than 1 chance in ______ that any differences found were not due to the hypothesized reason.

a. 5

b. 20

c. 25

d. 100

 

 

27. If the sample mean is 25, the population average is 5, and the standard error of the mean is 10, what is the observed z value?

a. 5

b. 2.5

c. -2

d. 2

 

28. In the statement, z = 1.42, p > 0.05, which of the following interpretations is TRUE?

a. There is a significant difference between the sample value and the population.

b. There is a marginally significant difference between the sample value and the population.

c. There is not a significant difference between the sample value and the population.

d. The answer cannot be determined from the information given.

 

29. In a t-test, if the resultant t value is 2.72 and p < 0.05, what is the interpretation?

a. There is a statistical significance in the test.

b. There is no statistical significance in the test.

c. unknown

d. The sample is unaffected

 

30. The t test for independent samples assumes which of the following?

a. There was a pre- and post-test.

b. Scores are independent.

c. Scores are related.

d. Mean scores are equal.

 

31. When it comes to significance testing, the level of risk is ______.

a. determined by sample size

b. always set at 0.05

c. set by the researcher

d. irrelevant for t-test

 

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