A Powerful Guide on Mathematical Terms for Beginners


Basic mathematical terms and basic mathematical operations go hand in hand. It means both terms and operations are necessary to understand the math problems. 

If you do not have any idea regarding the mathematical terms, do not worry, as I have detailed all the necessary terms in this blog.

But before that, you all might know that there are four basic math operations that you need to solve a problem. And these operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. 

These concepts are applied to different factors, GCF, LCM, numbers, and other math terms. Therefore, it is important that you must know about all these operations along with the mathematical terms. 

Remember: Below is the diagram that defines the basic math operation keywords used in math problems. Try to remember these keywords to solve the problems more effectively.

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A-Z sequential terms: What are the mathematical terms?

I have already mentioned that there are numerous basic mathematical terms that students must learn or keep on learning throughout their academic studies. But I have detailed the most helpful and most essential terms starting from A to Z. 

AlgebraIt is the basic branch of maths that uses the method of substitution letters for numbers for solving unknown values.
AddendThe number that is involved within the additional problems. Or the number that is being added is known as an addend.
BEDMAS or PEMDASIt tells the correct order or sequence of the operations to solve algebra equations. BEDMAS refers to “Brackets, Exponents, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction.” At the same time, PEMDAS refers to “Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction.
BinomialThe polynomial equation consisting of two terms joined by the minus or plus sign is known as binomial.
ConstantThe value can not be changed throughout the experiment.
CoefficientThe number or the letter describes the numeric quantity joint to the term.
DecimalThe actual number with the base ten is considered as a decimal.
DigitThe number made up of 0-9 is called a digit, like a 3 digit number is 155.
Equation The statement shows two expressions’ equality with an equal sign.
ExpressionThe symbol uses to show operations among the numbers or just the numbers.
FactorThe number which divides into two or more numbers exactly. As the factor of 8 is 1, 2, 4, 8.
FormulaThe numerical relation among two or more variables describes using the formula.
Greatest Common FactorThe largest number that is common in each factor set or the number that can exactly divide both numbers. As GCF of 10 and 30 is 10.
Graph theoryIt is the mathematical branch that focuses on the graph properties.
HypotenuseThe right-angled triangle’s longest side is opposite the right angle.
HexagonThe six-angled or six-sided polygon.
IdentityThe equation, which is true for the variables with any of the values.
IsoscelesThe polygon has two equal-length sides.
JuxtaposeIt represents the expression’s multiplication by placing the factors parallelly. Moreover, a factor must have a variable. For instance 4n => 4 * n.
JumpJump is the move performed while practicing subtraction or addition – backward or forward respectively – over the number line.
KnotA closed 3-D circle that can not be untangled.
KilometerThe distance measuring unit is equal to 1000 meters.
Linear equationIt consists of two variables that you can plot on the graph as a straight line.
Logarithm (Log)The power is used for raising the given number. If nx = a, here n as the base and a is the log. The log is the exponentiation’s opposite.
Mixed numbersIt refers to the whole numbers joined with decimal or fraction. For instance, 4 1/2 or 4.5.
MultipleThe product of the number with another whole number.
Natural numbersAll regular counting numbers.
NumeratorThe top number of a given fraction.
Obtuse AngleAn angle that is calculated between 90° & 180°.
OutcomeMostly called in probability for referring to the event’s result.
ProbabilityThe event happening’ likelihood refers to probability.
PerpendicularPerpendicular lines examples is the line segments or two lines intersecting to make a right angle.
Quadratic EquationThe equation is written on the one side of 0, like a + b = 0.
QuadrilateralIt is a four-sided polygon.
RangeThe difference between the maximum and minimum dataset.
RectangleThe parallelogram has four right angles.
SubtractionThe operation that performs to calculate the difference between two quantities or numbers by “taking away” a single number from another.
SymmetryThe two halves, which are perfectly matched across an axis.
Triangle A three-sided polygon.
TermA number in series or a sequence; a part of an algebraic equation; a multiplication of real numbers and variables.
Unit conversionChanging any of the units of measurement into other units using division or multiplication.
Unit squareOr square unit; unit used to measure the two-dimensional shape’s area.
VolumeA container’s capacity is expressed in cubic units.
VariableAn alphabetic letter is used to describe a numerical value within expressions and equations.
WeightThe measurement of the things in terms of how heavy it is.
Whole NumberPositive integer also considers as the whole number.
X-AxisThe horizontal axis of the coordinate plane.
The Roman numeral represents the number 10.
Y-AxisThe vertical axis of the coordinate plane.
YardA measuring unit equal to 3 feet or 91.5 centimeters (approximately).
Zero-pointIt is the same as origin.
ZeroIt is a placeholder among the values of +1 and -1.

What are some other basic mathematical terms as per their categories?

Apart from the above-mentioned terms, there are several other basic mathematical terms. I have categorized them into 5 different categories. Let’s find out which category includes which basic term.

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Counting and cardinality terms

ArrayThe set of objects or numbers in columns and rows.
DigitThe numeral terms are found in the numbers as single digital numbers (like 0, 5, 9) and multi-digit numbers (like 10, 15, 99).
Less than The value is lower than other values.
Cardinal numbers (Cardinality)It marks the quantity using the number words (like one, five, nine).
Greater thanThe value is greater than other values.

Operations and algebraic thinking terms

Average (Mean)The addition of numbers that are divided by the total number of observations.
DecomposeSeparating the number from the sets of tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
Even numberThe number is divided by 2.
IntegerAll the whole numbers are called integers, including zero.
Odd numberThe number that does not divide by 2.

Ratios and proportional relationships

FrequencyThe number of times an event can occur in the time.
PercentIt is part of 100. Percent is the fraction that has the 100 in its denominator.
OutliersThe data point, which differs from the rest of the data set’s behavior.
RatioIt is the comparison of values between the two amounts.
ProbabilityIt is the likelihood of the events that are happening. It is also called odds.

Geometry terms

CircumferenceIt is the total distance around the circle.
LineThe straight path, which extends into two different directions and joining different points with the path.
OrientationIt is the position of the figure or shape.
PlaneThe flat surface is joined with various points.
QuadrilateralA four-sided figure with six faces.

Measurement and data terms

AreaThe two-dimensional space that is taken within the shape.
DatapointIt is the unit of data that is graphically represented.
DistanceIt is the measurement of the space between two locations or objects.
PerimeterThe total distance around any shape like a circle, triangle, etc.
VolumeIt is the measurement, which indicates how much the space of an object occupies.


It is important to note that there are countless mathematical terms that students need to know. Above I have mentioned the most basic mathematical terms that each student must learn. Apart from these, the terms can be advanced, and their definition can vary from the graduate level to the Ph.D. level. 

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If you want to know about the advanced-level math terms, let me know through the comments. I will definitely provide you with the best guide to your query. Keep yourself updated with the best online help that is none other than “statanalytica.”  Get the best math homework help 5th grade from the experts

Frequently Asked Questions

What are mathematical terms?

The term considers as a single mathematical expression. This expression consists of a single number (that may be negative or positive), a single variable (as an alphabetic letter), or multiple variables that are not subtracted or added.

What are the four rules of maths?

The four most basic rules of maths are sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

What is “as many as” in math?

The meaning of “As many” means the equivalent number. For instance: Thrice as many means three times as many.