Python vs Java: Which is better and How to Choose?

Python vs Java differences is also an overwhelming comparison for the students. There are hundreds of blogs over the internet that are showcasing the comparison between Python and Java. But no one is giving a solid reason for “is python or java easier.” We all know that nowadays Python is competing with almost every programming language.

Even it is also competing with the most robust programming language in the world. Yes, you are right, it is Java. Java is one of the best programming languages to create desktop applications. But it is also used in the field of data science. Therefore both of these programming languages are competing with each other in various industries. Before we dig into the comparison, let’s have a look at the overview of both of these languages. 

The programming languages are essential for every programming activity; even they are basic tools in a programmers’ toolbox. So we can say that programming languages are a fundamental part of computer science. Everyone is often confused when it comes to choosing a programming language between the two most popular programming languages. At present, python and java are the two most popular and competitive programming languages.

Python made fantastic popularity in the last few years, and java holds to the same position from the previous few years. Both are battling for getting top position on the topmost popular programming languages. Many beginners are confused about python vs java. If you are also confused about python and java? Then you came to the right article here. We are going to discuss all the essential differences between python vs. java. This blog will be helpful for you to understand the comparison between them. But before discussing python vs java differences, let’s check detailed information about both.

Java 

Java is one of the oldest and most powerful programming languages in the world. It is a general-purpose and statically typed language. It means that anyone can use it. There is not a specific purpose to use this programming language. Java was first released in 1995 by Sun Microsystem. Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystem. The initial version of Java was to be built for portable devices and set-top boxes. Nowadays, you can download Java from the official site of Oracle.

Java is also an object-oriented programming language. That makes it one of the easy to use programming languages. Java is also a portable programming language and works on WORA (write once run anywhere). It means you can write the Java Program on a specific machine and use it on any platform. All you need to have the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to run Java Programs.

The Java syntax is quite similar to C++. Java is also the dynamically linked programming language. It means that you can download the code from anywhere over the internet and run it on the Java compiler. It is also a network-centric programming language. Apart from that, Java is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.

Python

Python is the most popular programming language of the 21st century. It is one of the simplest programming languages in the world. That’s why it is becoming the first choice for beginners. Python was invented in the late 1980s by Guido van Rossum in the Netherlands. The implementation of Python was started in December 1989. But the first version of Python (0.9.0) came into existence in February 1999. Python is also a general-purpose programming language. Most of the programmers said that it was derived from ABC programming language.

Python is an open-source programming language. It means that there is not any specific owner of Python in the world. An open-source community maintained it. Python is a high-level object-oriented programming language. Like any other programming language, Python has built in data structures. One of the best parts of Python is, it is a dynamically typed programming language. It is also offering dynamic binding options to the programmers.

That’s why it is the first choice for rapid application development. There are plenty of packages and modules available in Python, which allows you to reuse the code. Like no other language, you can write the code in Python with the help of a few lines. There is no specific syntax in Python. Therefore the code readability in Python is quite simple and easy for the beginners.

You can run Python code anywhere without any additional efforts. Python also allows you to add low-level modules in it. You can find the automatic garbage collection, interactive mode of testing and debugging, and ideal structure for large programs. It can also integrate with other programming languages such as C, C++, and Java.

Python and Java comparison

Python Programming LanguageJava Programming Language
It is a high-level interpreted,  and general-purpose, coding language.Java is also easy to learn and use, but it is not easier than python.
The number of lines is less that’s why in Python it’s easier to write code.As java always takes less time to execute a code. Hence in terms of speed, It is comparatively faster than python.
Python programs Syntax learning and reading is simple.Java programming language is statically typed.
For the management of memory  python uses an automatic garbage collector. Java is not a much-trending language according to others.
As compared to compiled programs execution of interpreted programs slower Java is not a straightforward language but it’s one of the complex programming languages.
Error debugging is easy. Which means it takes only one instruction at one time and organizes and performs together. Errors are shown immediately and the execution is stopped, at that instruction.The legacy system of java is typically more and larger than python’s.
For built-in functions python has a large library.Everyone knows that Java is more verbose comparably to python. Hence it takes ten lines of source code in java( to read a file from java).
Python has no pointers.Java is mostly popular for many web applications and for mobiles. Because of its universality of IDE’s in developments, and statics type system  It’s more preferable than python.
Declaration of variables type is not necessary here. In Python variables are untyped. A given variable can be stuck on values of various types at different times during the execution of the program.The java virtual machine provides the runtime environment to execute the codings and convert different bytecodes into the machine language.
Gives ease of data structures implementation with append functions, built-in insert.Java always provides stable connectivity to all areas of the globe.
Python is a General-Purpose programming language.Java is not a General Purpose Programming Language. 
Python language programs are saved by the .py extension.Java Programs are saved as .Java Extensions.
Codes of Python are easy to maintain.Codes of Java are difficult to maintain.
For deployment and development python is used as a general-purpose language.For deployment and development Java is not used as a general-purpose language.
Python library learning can be a bit complicated.Java library learning is also  a bit complicated for most of the users.
Python is faster.Java is Faster too. 
For deep learning Python is better.For deep learning Java is better too.
Statistical packages of Python are less powerful.Statistical packages of Java are more powerful.
Python is fit for creating something new from scratch. It can be used for application development also.Java is also fit for creating something new from scratch. It can be used for application development also.
Python is one of the easy to use and learn programming languages.Java is a bit trickier to use and learn programming languages.
Python only tracks the data type at run time. That makes it comparatively slower than java.Java tracks the data type at compile and run time. That makes it comparatively faster than Python.
Python programming language that is Dynamically typed .Java programming language is not  Dynamically typed 
Python is one of the most trending languages. Java is also one of the most trending languages. 
Python is one of the straightforward programming languages. That is why it is easy to use.Java is a bit trickier to learn and use. 
The legacy problems in python are lesser than java’s. The legacy problems in Java is Higher than Python.
Python offers very slow connectivity compared to java.Java Offers faster connectivity compared to Python
Python vs Java

Python vs Java speed

When we talk about the speed, Python is not as fast as Java. Because Python offers one of the slowest architectures for the programmers, which makes it a long time process to convert the code into machine language. Therefore it became one of the slowest programming languages to convert the code into the machine language. It converts the source code into machine language at the run time

On the other hand, Java architecture is much more reliable and faster as compared with Python. In Java, the source code is easily converted into the machine language in the compilation time. It saves a lot of time and memory on the computer and provides faster code execution. 

Python vs Java Ease of learning

Python is the easiest programming language for beginners. It is a dynamically typed programming language. Therefore the syntax of Python is similar to pseudocode or plain english. You need not remember a well-structured syntax for Python. Apart from that Python also has a vast community that helps the programmers to learn and solve their problems. Python community is available in many countries around the world. And there are also many groups for the Python developers. 

On the other hand, Java is not an easy programming language for beginners. It has one of the most complex syntaxes i.e., quite hard to understand for the beginners. But if you know the C++ programming language, then you will find Java quite more straightforward for you. Apart from that, Java also has excellent community support where you can take the help of other programmers to solve your problems.

Python vs Java Game Development

When we talk about game development with Java or Python. Then both of these programmings are not the best option to create high-end PC games. But we can create some of the low-end games with the help of Java and Python. Apart from that, these languages are also helpful in graphics software. Python offers some of the most powerful engines or frameworks to create games. Some of the most popular are Cocos, Panda3d, and Pygame. You can’t create the high-end games with these frameworks. But you can create the high-end graphics with these frameworks. Most of the game developers are using Python as the scripting language. Maya is also using Python for easy scripting. 

On the other hand, in Java, you can use the JMonkeyEngine for game development. It is one of the best and most powerful open source game development engines. You can create some excellent games with the help of this engine. Apart from that, you can also create your own engine with the help of OpenGL in Java. 

Python vs Java Trends

Python vs Java Web Development

In Python vs Java web development, none of the programming languages is used in front end web development. Web developers use these languages for backend web development. Backend web development from scratch is one of the most difficult parts for web developers. Because they need to be sure about all the design requirements, security, reliability, and effectiveness. But wait, to overcome these problems, developers have created the frameworks. The framework is playing a crucial role in building the back end technology. The developer need not think from scratch. 

Python offers us the Django and Flask framework for web development. Flask offers us the basic functionality like routing request. While Django is more potent than Flask, it allows you to build a robust backend with efficiency and security. Apart from that, Django also has the ORM layer, which makes it the best framework to deal with databases and perform various data operations. 

On the other hand, Java offers the Spring framework that is one of the well known Java backend frameworks. It provides a massive ecosystem to the developers. Spring is used by some of the well-known corporations i.e., GE and dell. You can build powerful web applications with the help of this framework. 

Python vs Java Machine Learning

Python is one of the best options for machine learning. As it allows you to perform various options without the need for complex programming. Most of the AI and machine learning developers are using Python. It offers various libraries and packages for AI and machine learning. It also offers huge ecosystems to develop AI and machine learning applications. 

On the other hand, Java is also one of the best options for machine learning. The reason is you can easily debug the Python program and use it. The Java programs are widely used to create large-scale and enterprise-level applications. Java is offering various libraries for machine learning and AI. You need not generate the code from scratch to use Java for machine learning. 

Code readability and formatting

We all know that Python offers decent code readability than Java. Apart from that Python also offers the decent formatting for coding as compared to Java. Let’s take an example to compare the Python and Java code. Let’s start with the Python code

Python Code

def get_symbols(file_name):

    with open(file_name, “r”) as in_file:

        records = []

        count = 0

        symbol_set = “”

        for line in in_file:

            symbol_set = symbol_set + line[:-1] + ‘,’

            count = count + 1

            if count % 20 == 0:

                records.append(symbol_set)

                symbol_set = “”

        symbols.append(symbol_set)

        return records

Java code

List<String> getSymbols(String filename) throws IOException {

  List<String> records = new ArrayList<>();

  try (BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(filename))) {

    String line;

    int count = 0;

    StringBuilder symbol_set = new StringBuilder();

    while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {

      symbol_set.append(line).append(“,”);

      count++;

      if ((count % 20) == 0) {

        records.add(symbol_set.toString());

        symbol_set.setLength(0);

      }

    }

    records.add(symbol_set.toString());

    return records;

  }

}

Whitespace

In most of the comparisons the whitespace may not be the point to compare. But whitespace plays a crucial role in Python. In python tabs are used for nesting and colon is used to start the loop and conditional blocks. Python code is concise as compared to other programming languages. Sometimes it becomes overwhelming for the programmers to do coding in Python. 

On the other hand, there is no role of whitespace in Java. Java completely ignores whitespace. It uses the semicolons, parentheses, and braces in its syntax. 

Python vs Java Performance

When we talk about the performance of both of these programming languages, then both of them are compiled to bytecode and run in virtual machines. Both of these programming languages are cross-platform. In Python the code compiles at runtime. 

On the other hand, Java compiles the code in advance. Then distributes the code in the bytecode. That’s why Java is offering better performance over Python. The JVM uses the JIT compilation for all the programs. It means that the entire program is compiled in advance. The main version of Python doesn’t have the capability for advanced compilation, but some new variants of Python are capable of doing so, such as PyPy.

Python vs Java Architecture

In Python architecture, the code converts the bytecode. And then, the bytecode converts into machine code. The machine code stored in another folder. The machine code is not translated at runtime. It means that the bytecode is sent across the Python Virtual Machine. PVM is responsible for running the Python code across various devices. 

Java architecture is considered one of the most exquisite architectures of any programming language. Java offers a runtime environment to operate the code. In Java, the Java bytecode converts into machine language. The machine language code is compiled at the time of execution. 

Python vs java jobs

Python and Java both offer various jobs in different fields. Some of the most popular jobs for Python and Java developers are

Python jobs

  • Quality assurance engineer
  • Python full stack developer
  • Python developer
  • Data scientist
  • Machine learning engineer

Java Jobs

  • Solution architect
  • Devops engineer
  • Scrum master
  • Business analyst
  • Project manager

Python vs Java Data Science

Python is one of the most popular programming languages for data science. It is quite helpful to perform various operations in data science. Python is quite helpful in collecting data from multiple data sources. It is quite easy to organize the raw data in the data warehouses with the help of Python. Apart from that, Python is also helpful to store structured and unstructured data in Big data operation. Besides, Python also offers various libraries and modules that are quite useful in Big data technologies. 

On the other hand, Java is not that popular in the field of data science. But few of the companies are using Java in the big data technologies because of its architecture and features. Apart from that Java is also used to build the custom data warehouses. That’s why the demand for Java developers is increasing at a rapid pace.

Conclusion

Both Python and Java are powerful programming languages. Therefore it is hard to pick anyone. But let me help you to choose the best one between Python vs Java for the future. If you want to make a career in machine learning and artificial intelligence, then Python is the better option for you. On the other hand, if you’re going to make a career in web development, then you should go with Java. For the data science field, you can pick either one. 

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Serena Martin

Hi,
I think when talking about performance, speed is a common association. The response time of an application is often an indication of code execution speed. To compare, Python is significantly slower than JavaScript.

John Martine

Hello,

Basically Java is one of the old and most efficient programming language as compare to python. This is very good article to show some pros and cons for both the languages. Thanks for sharing.
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