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we need to carefully read the scenarios at the end of this document and discuss with the group



This week you will continue to work with the PISA 2018 data. For this week, you will:

1. Select the same educational challenge and the same features of the previous assignment but

change the selected country; or

2. Select the same educational challenge and the same country but change the features you selected in your previous assignment; or

3. Select the same educational challenge but change the features and the country you selected in your previous assignment.

Part 1 – Motivation, Context and Hypothesis (Step 1)

In part 1, we need to carefully read the scenarios at the end of this document and discuss with the group what scenario, country, subject, and why you care. Please note that the ultimate goal of any data mining research is about making decisions and to consult your client (The Ministry / Department of Education).

Drawn from the context above, develop a hypothesis statement (in the form of a question) that you want to answer.


Scenario Well-being

Country Kazakhstan

Subject (target) Science performance (from the SCIE science results from the PISA test)

Why you words max) care (500 Student well-being is essential for both the academic and personal development of kids. There are many facets of student well-being. A comprehensive approach involving parents and teachers is necessary to improve students' well-being. Schools should teach students how to use the internet responsibly, promote a healthy lifestyle, and prevent and resolve problems in collaboration with those affected, such as social and health agencies, civil society organizations, and local authorities. Borman et al. (2019) explain that student well-being is not given the intensity it deserves. Most schools, especially in Kazakhstan, need help to provide students with the right information to deepen their understanding of the choices they face. According to research, student well-being and academic achievement are directly correlated, and vice versa. This suggests that both academic success and well-being are essential preconditions for one another. Improved learning and concentration are connected to physical activity. Students need supportive, strong relationships to push themselves intellectually outside of their "comfort zone" and discover new, better ideas and ways of thinking, which is crucial for academic success.

Our group members don't have much background knowledge about the educational system in Kazakhstan. Still, we are interested in this topic because we all would like to find out the correlation if student well-being would lead to poor science academic achievement in Kazakhstan. According to the research, most students in Kazakhstan are very demotivated in their studies, and most


have poor physical and mental health (Hernández-Torrano et al., 2021). Through our experiences, we established that although Kazakhstan, like many other countries going through changes, had stated its aspirations to improve its education system. However, as explained by Winter et al. (2020), most schools had neglected the well-being of their students, especially in the study of sciences, which has affected multiple areas of the students' lives, lowering the quality of their lives, physical health, academic achievement, and satisfaction with their experience. It also negatively affects their relationships with friends and family. The issues have had long-term consequences for the learners in Kazakhstan, which could also affect their future employment, overall health, and earning potential.


Various scholarly articles support this notion. Bucker et al. (2018) explain that much needs to be done to improve students' well-being and, thus, their science academic achievement. Schools should aim to help students to tackle mental health issues because they always have adverse effects on their studies and general life. Bucker et al. (2018) continue to explain that mental health issues often affect students' energy levels, optimism, and dependability and hinder performance. Research also shows that depression is linked with lower grades in science studies.


Kaya and Erdem (2021) explain that most schools encounter challenges in improving students' well-being. Some of the obstacles he lists include that promoting well-being may sometimes conflict with other school priorities. Kaya and Erdem (2021) also explain that some schools may not be free to change certain elements of school life, which might benefit student well-being. However, schools should try as much as possible to prioritize student well-being.

Hypothesis statement Larger research interest:

Does improving  well-being in  Kazakhstan schools correlate with improved science academic achievement?


Later refinement of hypothesis:

Does refining students’ well-being in Kazakhstan schools correlate to improved science academic achievement?



Part 2: Evidence & Processing Data (Step 2, 3, & 4)

This part is dedicated to presenting evidence of the hypothesis. Make sure the evidence fits the educational challenge your group selected. A second goal of this part is to refine your hypothesis from Part 1 based on available data in order to ask a more explicit and specific question.

In order to refine the hypothesis, take a look at the available metrics for the country you chose and consider whether those metrics provide the appropriate information for answering your question. For example, if your hypothesis statement is “Does investing in education technology in Viet Nam lead to better learning outcomes,” you would need data on educational technology investments in Viet Nam (probably a number) and student learning outcomes (could be in terms of grades or performance on


standardized tests). It is important that you cite reports, news articles, and research papers that emphasize the need for a better understanding of the educational challenge you are working on and possibly the question/hypothesis your group defined.


When you cite the reference(s), it is important to include: (i) who is affected by the problem and how it affects them; (ii) Data and information about the impact of this problem; and (iii) The contexts/situations where the problem emerges. (500 words max)



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