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The goal of this assignment is to become familiar with the use of OLS regression in order to grasp causality.

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

The goal of this assignment is to become familiar with the use of OLS regression in order to grasp causality. Using the available data from the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA), United States, 2017, you will analyse the joint impact of at least four independent background variableson a single dependent variable representing cultural behaviour or cultural taste. Using SPSS, you will build up a regression model by adding the independent variables one by one. So, the first model would assess the effect of the first independent variable (IV1) on the dependent variable (DV) in a bivariate regression analysis. Then, the second independent variable (IV2) is added to assess its effect, but also to see what happens to the effect of the first independent variable once another one is added. What does the difference in effect of the first independent variable between bivariate model 1 and multivariate model 2 tell us about causality?

These steps are repeated by adding a third (IV3) and fourth (IV4) independent variable and each time assessing what happened to the effects of the variables that were already in the model.

This procedure gives you four models, that are essentially built up like this:

Model 1: IV1 -> DV

Model 2: IV1, IV2 -> DV

Model 3: IV1, IV2, IV3 -> DV

Model 4: IV1, IV2, IV3, IV4 -> DV

When discussing Model 2, one should address and interpret the effect of IV2 plus the effect of IV1 and if/how the latter changes between Model 1 and Model 2. The same for Model 3: assess the effect of IV3 and explain why the effects of IV1 and IV2 may differ between Models 2 and 3. Etc. until Model 4, or further if you wish to use more independent variables.

While the focus of this assignment is on the use and interpretation of SPSS, you should also briefly explain why you choose the variables you choose in terms of theoretically expected relations. In your interpretations of the model parameters (or: effects) you should refer to the substantial of theoretical meaning of your findings.

In your presentation of the models, you will use the format that is shown on the lecture slides and provided example literature. This means you will report all your models in a single table to facilitate comparison between them. You will report standardised effects, unstandardised effects, standard errors and significance levels for each independent variable. Per model, you also report constants and proportions of explained variance.

The length of the report should be between 1000 and 1500 words.

Report should include 4 sections:

1. Introduction: Brief introduction where you present your research question.

2. Method: Describe the data, the used variables, their relevance (why you use these to measure the concepts you are interested in) and theoretical expected relations. All the steps you took before analysing the data (for example: assumption checking, transforming variables and making dummy variables).

3. Analysis: Discussion of the results. This should include a table with the models (made in Word, including relevant information; NOT raw SPSS output), and a discussion of what can be observed in the tables.

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