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Researchers are evaluating the longevity of two types of restoration material records from a large dental practice are checked

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

Homework Assignment #1

Enter the data from questions 1 to 8 in SPSS and perform the appropriate analyses to answer the questions.  Hand in your SPSS output for all the questions with written comments regarding the results.  Use a 5% significance level unless otherwise stated.

1.   Researchers are evaluating the longevity of two types of restoration materials.  Records from a large dental practice are checked and 40 returning patients are found who had a restoration was done with material A more than ten years ago, and 90 are found who had a restoration done with material B.  Records are checked and phone calls are made to find out how many of these restorations have failed in 10 years.  It was found that 8 restorations made from material A and 20 restorations from material B failed within 10 years.  Compute an appropriate hypothesis test to assess whether the proportions of restorations that failed within 10 years differs between the two material types.  Please be sure to explicitly state the null and alternative hypotheses, state a conclusion from the test, and estimate the p-value.  (10 points)

 2.  The following table (on the next page) shows the clinical attachment level of two groups of patients (smokers and non-smokers) at the end of a period of periodontal treatment. We want to know if there is a difference between the groups. Examination of the data using a box and whisker plot (see below) leads us to believe that the data may not be normally distributed. State the appropriate null hypothesis, find the value of the appropriate test statistic and the p-value.  (10 points)

Non-smoker

CAL (mm)

 

Smoker

CAL (mm)

1

1·0

 

14

2·8

2

0·6

 

15

0·0

3

1·1

 

16

4·2

4

1·2

 

17

1·3

5

0·7

 

18

3·6

6

1·3

 

19

1·6

7

0·9

 

20

0·9

8

0·4

 

21

1·3

9

0·9

 

22

1·0

10

0·2

 

23

1·5

11

1·4

 

24

2·8

12

0·9

 

25

2·8

13

0·8

 

26

2·0

 3.   Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTAD) is a root canal disinfectant that is a mixture of tetracycline, an acid and a detergent. A study was conducted to compare the antimicrobial activities of MTAD to that of sodium hypochloride (NaOCL). The following data indicate the zone of inhibition (millimeters) on plates inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (Torabinejad et al., 2002). Suppose that the distribution of the zone of inhibition is normal. Perform a test to detect if there are any significant differences in means between MTAD and NaOCL.  (5 points) 

 

Zone of inhibition (mm)

MTAD

35

34

35

35

34

36

35

34

NaOCL

33

34

33

34

36

35

34

36

 4.  (5 points)  An oral health literacy study is looking at the validity of food labels for infants with regards to sugar content.  Eleven cartons of sugar, each nominally containing 1 kg, were randomly selected from a large batch of cartons.  The weights of sugar were:

1.02

1.05

1.08

1.03

1.00

1.06

1.08

1.01

1.04

1.07

1.00.

Do these data support the hypothesis that the mean weight for the batch is 1kg?

5.  Final exam scores in the Biostatistics course for hygiene students, dental students, and residents are given.  Can you conclude that there is a difference in the mean scores of the three groups?  Perform the appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (made up data).  (10 points) 

 

Exam Score

Hygiene

83

88

68

84

74

94

75

80

71

Dental

77

92

48

82

79

85

66

73

82

Residents

98

84

79

88

95

82

76

94

89

 6.  Ten subjects were recruited for a tooth-whitening study.  The subjects were instructed to use Whitestrips once a day for 20 min. per day.  Investigators measured the individual’s L value at the baseline and 7 days to evaluate the effectiveness of the whitening product.  Is there a difference in the mean L value among the two time points?  Perform the appropriate parametric and the non-parametric statistical tests. (5 points)

 

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